In this picture, 반 밖에 should be 반밖에. There is no space between 반 and 밖에.
-(이)나 and 밖에 both are particles. -(이)나 is used after a noun, it means ‘or’. For example,
라면이나 우동을 시킬까요? Shall we order noodles or Udon?
초록색이나 빨간색을 입으세요. Please wear green or red.
Sometimes ‘이나’ is used after numbers/amount, it means ‘the number is more than the speaker expected’. For example,
|어제 술을 네 잔이나 마셨어요.||I drank alcohol 4 glasses last night. (it means that she/he drank more than usual)|
|커피 값이 만 원이나 해요?||Is a cup of coffee 10,000? (it is expensive)|
|커피를 하루에 다섯 잔이나 마셔요?||Do you drink coffee 5 times a day? (you drink a lot)|
|세뱃돈을 5만원이나 받았어요.||I got 50,000 Won at the New Year’s money. (it is more than I expected.)|
|집에 친구들이 20명이나 왔어요.||20 friends came to my home.(a lot of friends!)|
|오늘 공원에 차가 50대나 있었어요.||There were 50 cars at the park today. (a lot of cars!)|
|물이 반이나 남았어요.||There is a half cup of water. (still a lot)|
On the other hand, if you use -밖에 instead of -(이)나, it means totally opposite. –밖에 is used after noun, it means ‘only’. When you use Noun+밖에, you have to use a negative word or expression with a verb/adjective. For example,
오늘은 커피를 한 잔밖에 안 마셨어요. I only drank a cup of coffee. (=오늘은 커피를 한 잔만 마셨어요.)
파티에 선생님밖에 안 왔어요. Only my teacher came to the party. (파티에 선생님만 왔어요.)
Therefore, when 밖에 is used after numbers/amount, it means ‘only this amount of number’ which expresses unpleasant meaning. For example,
|A: 어제 술을 얼마나 마셨어요?||B: 조금밖에 안 마셨어요.||A: How much did you drink yesterday?||B : I only drank a little bit.|
|매달 월급을 백오십만 원밖에 못 받아요.||I only get 150,000 Won every month for salary.|
|일주일에 운동을 3시간밖에 안 해요.||I only work out 3 hours a week.|
|일 년에 한 번밖에 여행을 갈 수 없어요.||I only can go travel once a year.|
|돈이 조금밖에 없어서 비싼 음식을 먹을 수 없어요.||I only have a little bit of money, so I can’t eat expensive food.|
|이 요리는 아주 쉬워요. 5분밖에 안 걸려요.||This food is easy to make. It only takes 5 minutes.|
|물이 반밖에 남지 않았어요.||There is only a half cup of water.|
You can listen to the pronunciation for those examples here.
5 thoughts on “[Grammar] -(이)나 and -밖에”
Hello, i’m Hamza from Tunisia north africa.
I really appreciate your effort and the good work you have done on this website, i always study through your lessons since they are very helpful and easy to understand.
In the last section of this grammar lesson “(이)나 and -밖에”, in the 5th example (돈이 조금밖에 없어서 비싼 음식을 먹을 수 없어요.), i would like to point out that you forgot to write to negative form in the english translation [ i can eat => i can’t eat ].