[Grammar] -(이)나 and -밖에

CYMERA_20130709_122812In this picture, 반 밖에 should be 반밖에. There is no space between 반 and 밖에.


-(이)나 and 밖에 both are particles. -(이)나 is used after a noun, it means ‘or’.  For example,

라면이나 우동을 시킬까요? Shall we order noodles or Udon?
초록색이나 빨간색을 입으세요. Please wear green or red.

Sometimes ‘이나’ is used after numbers/amount, it means  ‘the number is more than the speaker expected’. For example,

어제 술을 네 잔이나 마셨어요. I drank alcohol 4 glasses last night. (it means that she/he drank more than usual)
커피 값이 만 원이나 해요? Is a cup of coffee 10,000? (it is expensive)
커피를 하루에 다섯 잔이나 마셔요? Do you drink coffee 5 times a day? (you drink a lot)
세뱃돈을 5만원이나 받았어요. I got 50,000 Won at the New Year’s money. (it is more than I expected.)
집에 친구들이 20명이나 왔어요. 20 friends came to my home.(a lot of friends!)
오늘 공원에 차가 50대 있었어요. There were 50 cars at the park today. (a lot of cars!)
물이 반이나 남았어요. There is a half cup of water. (still a lot)



On the other hand, if you use -밖에 instead of -(이)나, it means totally opposite.  -밖에 is used after noun, it means ‘only’.  When you use Noun+밖에, you have to use a negative word or expression with a verb/adjective.  For example,

오늘은 커피를 한 잔밖에 안 마셨어요. I only drank a cup of coffee. (=오늘은 커피를 한 잔만 마셨어요.)
파티에 선생님밖에 안 왔어요. Only my teacher came to the party. (파티에 선생님만 왔어요.)

Therefore, when 밖에 is used after numbers/amount, it means ‘only this amount of number’ which expresses unpleasant meaning.  For example,

A: 어제 술을 얼마나 마셨어요?
B: 조금밖에 마셨어요.
A: How much did you drink yesterday?
B : I only drank a little bit.
매달 월급을 백오십만 원밖에 받아요.  I only get 150,000 Won every month for salary.
일주일에 운동을 3시간밖에 해요.  I only work out 3 hours a week.
일 년에 한 번밖에 여행을 갈 수 없어요.  I only can go travel once a year.
돈이 조금밖에 없어서 비싼 음식을 먹을 수 없어요.  I only have a little bit of money, so I can eat expensive food.
이 요리는 아주 쉬워요. 5분밖에 걸려요. This food is easy to make. It only takes 5 minutes.
물이 반밖에 지 않았어요.  There is only a half cup of water.

You can listen to the pronunciation for those examples here.

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