[Grammar] 한국어 조사 Korean Particles/ makers part1

There are lots of particles in Korean, some books call them markers.  I will call them particles here. Korean Particles mostly attached to a noun, so there is no space between nouns and particles.  Let’s see what kind of particles are in Korean.

1. Subject particles -이/가 
Noun(ends with a consonant) + 이
Noun(ends with a vowel) + 가
Subject particles attach to a noun to tell us that noun is a subject in a sentence.  For example,
     선생님이 여자예요.  The teacher is a female.
     의자가 어디에 있어요?  Where is the chair?

2. Object particles -을/를
Noun(ends with a consonant) + 을
Noun(ends with a vowel) + 를
Object particles attach to a noun to tell us that noun is an object in a sentence. For example,
    밥을 안 먹었어요.   I didn’t eat a meal.
    커피를 마셔요.  I am drinking coffee.

3. Topic particles or comparison particles -은/는
Noun(ends with a consonant) + 은
Noun(ends with a vowel) + 는
When -은/는 are topic particles, they substitute subject particles or object particles, which means you cannot use -이/가(or 을/를) and 은/는 at the same time.  Thus, many students get confused by subject particles and topic particles.  I explain these two particles in this post(click). For example,
     선생님은 한국 사람이에요.  The teacher is Korean.
     저는 진우예요.  I am Jin-woo.

-은/는 also can mean ‘comparison’.   For example,
     사과는 좋아해요. 그런데 수박은 안 좋아해요.  I like apples, but I don’t like water melons. (사과를 => 사과는  수박을 => 수박은 )
     제 친구는 영어를 잘해요. 그런데 저는 영어를 못해요.  My friend speaks English very well, but I don’t. (제 친구가 => 제 친구는, 제가 => 저는 )

4. Time and place particle -에 
-에 has lots of meanings, however I only want to talk about time and place here.  For example,
1)  어디에 있어요?  Where is it? : It means ‘existence‘, so it is used with 있다/없다/살다
2)  학교에 가요. I am going to school.  : It means ‘destination‘, so it is used with 가다/오다/다니다
3)  2 시에 만나요.  Let’s meet at 2.  : It means ‘time‘ for this verb/adjective happens.
(However some nouns such as 지금, 어제, 오늘, 내일, 매일, 언제etc don’t add -에)

5. Place particle -에서 (at, in, on)
-에서 is a place particle with “action verbs“.  Many students get confused this with -에, but remember this is for “action verb” and -에 is for ‘있다/없다’.  For example,
백화점에서 만나요.  Let’s meet at the department store.
식당에서 점심을 먹어요. I am eating at a restaurant.

It also means ‘from somewhere’, for example
서울에서 왔어요. I am from Seoul.
서울에서 부산까지 멀어요.  It is far from Seoul to Busan.

6. -하고 : ‘and’ and ‘with’ = 와/과 or (이)랑
-하고 has two meaning, which are ‘and’ between two nouns and ‘with someone/animal’.  For example,
1) 수박하고 사과를 안 먹어요.  I don’t eat watermelons and apples.
2) 엄마하고 백화점에 갔어요.  I went to the department store with my mom.
* For formal form of 하고 is 와/과.  For example,
1) 수박 사과를 안 먹습니다.
2) 의사 이야기하세요.
* You will see (이)랑 sometimes instead of 하고.  (이)랑 is very casual form, so you only use it in a casual situation.  For example,
1) 수박이랑 사과를 안 먹어요.
2) 엄마 백화점에 갔어요.

7. -도  : ‘also’ and ‘even’ 
As I said earlier, it is a particle, so we shouldn’t use this as an adverb.
1) 고기를 먹었어요. 그리고 소주도 마셨어요.  I ate meat and also drank Soju.
고기를 먹었어요. 도 소주 마셨어요. (X)
2) 한 명도 안 왔어요. Even one person didn’t come.  : -도 is usually used with numbers, and means ‘even’.

8. -만 : ‘only’
Many students use this like an adverb because in English ‘only’ is an adverb. BUT 만 is ONLY attached to a noun.  For example,
사과만 안 먹어요.  Apples are only fruit I do not eat.
저만 한국 사람이에요.  I am the only Korean person.

9. -밖에 + negative word: ‘only’ 
It means similar to ‘-만’, however it needs an negative word such as ‘안’,  ‘못’,  ‘없어요’ or ‘몰라요’. For example,
저는 사과밖에 안 먹어요. I only eat apples.
저밖에 안 왔어요. I am the only one who came.
영어밖에 몰라요. I only know English.

You can listen to the audio by clicking this link. 

To Be Continued…

[Food] 삼겹살과 제육볶음 Sam Gyeop Ssal and spicy pork belly

Do you know what kind of meet Koreans love the most?  It is Pork belly which is called 삼겹살(Sam Gyeop Ssal).  When we eat 삼겹살, we wrap it with lettuce and put some garlic and green pepper with some sauce(쌈장 : Ssam Jang, seasoned bean paste).

My favorite part of grilling 삼겹살 is grilled 김치(Kimchi).  If you put 김치 surrounded 삼겹살, when you cook pork belly, it turns brown and sooooooooooooo delicious!!!

I also make 제육볶음 very often.  제육볶음 is marinated pork belly.  It is spicy because there is 고추장(red pepper paste).  Here is the recipe.

Ingredient>

삼겹살 1lb,
고추장 (red pepper paste) 2 daddy spoons,
고춧가루 (red pepper powder) 1 daddy spoon,
설탕 (sugar) 1.5 daddy spoons,
소주 (soju) 1 daddy spoon,
다진마늘 (minced garlic) 1 daddy spoon,
후추 (black pepper) 0.5 baby spoon,
간장 (soy sauce) 2 daddy spoons,
참기름 (sesame oil) 1 mommy spoon,
깨 (sesame seeds) 2 mommy spoons
a half of 양파 (yellow onion)
파 (green onion)

Marinate>>
1. Put 고추장, 고춧가루, 설탕, 다진마늘, 후추, 참기름, 깨 into a bowl with pork belly and mix them well.  And wait 1 hour.

2. Heat up a pan (no oil) with high heat and put the meat and vegetables together.

3. When it is done, eat it with 상추(lettuce) or 꺳잎[깬닙] (sesame leaves, perilla) .

[Grammar] A table for irregular forms

I know you hate irregular forms, hope I can help you practice with this table.

verb/adjective -아/어/여요 -았/었/였어요 -(스)ㅂ니다 -(으)ㄹ 거예요 -(으)ㄴ/는/(으)ㄹ -(으)세요 -(으)니까 -(으)면
ㅂ irregular

+vowel

[Grammar] ‘ㅂ’ 불규칙 : ‘ㅂ’ irregular verb/adjective

가깝다 가까워요 가까웠어요 가깝습니다 가까울 거예요 가까운 가까우세요 가까우니까 가까우면
귀엽다 귀여워요 귀여웠어요 귀엽습니다 귀여울 거예요 귀여운 귀여우세요 귀여우니까 귀여우면
아름답다 아름다워요 아름다웠어요 아름답습니다 아름다울 거예요 아름다운 아름다우세요 아름다우니까 아름다우면
춥다 추워요 추웠어요 춥습니다 추울 거예요 추운 추우세요 추우니까 추우면
덥다 더워요 더웠어요 덥습니다 더울 거예요 더운 더우세요 더우니까 더우면
무겁다 무거워요 무거웠어요 무겁습니다 무거울 거예요 무거운 무거우세요 무거우니까 무거우면
어둡다 어두워요 어두웠어요 어둡습니다 어두울 거예요 어두운 어두우세요 어두우니까 어두우면
ㄹ drop

+(으),(스)
+ㄴ,ㅂ,ㅅ

[Grammar] ㄹ 탈락 : ㄹ drop

만들다 만들어요 만들었어요 만듭니다 만들 거예요 만든/만드는/만들 만드세요 만드니까 만들면
울다 울어요 울었어요 웁니다 울 거예요 운/우는/울 우세요 우니까 울면
알다 알아요 알았어요 압니다 알 거예요 안/아는/알 아세요 아니까 알면
살다 살아요 살았어요 삽니다 살 거예요 산/사는/살 사세요 사니까 살면
멀다 멀어요 멀었어요 멉니다 멀 거예요 머세요 머니까 멀면
ㅅ irregular
+vowel
(병이) 낫다 나아요 나았어요 낫습니다 나을 거예요 나은/낫는/나을 나으세요 나으니까 나으면
짓다 지어요 지었어요 짓습니다 지을 거예요 지은/짓는/지을 지으세요 지으니까 지으면
ㄷ irregular

+vowel

[Grammar] ‘ㄷ’ 불규칙 ; ‘ㄷ’ Irregular verb

듣다 들어요 들었어요 듣습니다 들을 거예요 들은/듣는/들을 들으세요 들으니까 들으면
걷다 걸어요 걸었어요 걷습니다 걸을 거예요 걸은/걷는/걸을 걸으세요 걸으니까 걸으면
묻다 물어요 물었어요 묻습니다 물을 거예요 물은/묻는/물을 물으세요 물으니까 물으면
ㅎ irregular

+vowel

[Grammar] ㅎ 불규칙 : ㅎ irregular

이렇다 이래요 이랬어요 이렇습니다 이럴 거예요 이런 이러세요 이러니까 이러면
저렇다 저래요 저랬어요 저렇습니다 저럴 거예요 저런 저러세요 저러니까 저러면
그렇다 그래요 그랬어요 그렇습니다 그럴 거예요 그런 그러세요 그러니까 그러면
까맣다 까매요 까맸어요 까맣습니다 까말 거예요 까만 까마세요 까마니까 까마면
노랗다 노래요 노랬어요 노랗습니다 노랄 거예요 노란 노라세요 노라니까 노라면
르 irregular

+아/어

[Grammar] 르 불규칙 ‘르’ irregular

빠르다 빨라요 빨랐어요 빠릅니다 빠를 거예요 빠른 빠르세요 빠르니까 빠르면
다르다 달라요 달랐어요 다릅니다 다를 거예요 다른 다르세요 다르니까 다르면
모르다 몰라요 몰랐어요 모릅니다 모를 거예요 모른/모르는/모를 모르세요 모르니까 모르면
자르다 잘라요 잘랐어요 자릅니다 자를 거예요 자른/자르는/자를 자르세요 자르니까 자르면
ㅡ drop

+아/어

[Grammar] ‘으’탈락: ‘으’ drop verbs

아프다 아파요 아팠어요 아픕니다 아플 거예요 아픈 아프세요 아프니까 아프면
바쁘다 바빠요 바빴어요 바쁩니다 바쁠 거예요 바쁜 바쁘세요 바쁘니까 바쁘면
예쁘다 예뻐요 예뻤어요 예쁩니다 예쁠 거예요 예쁜 예쁘세요 예쁘니까 예쁘면
기쁘다 기뻐요 기뻤어요 기쁩니다 기쁠 거예요 기쁜 기쁘세요 기쁘니까 기쁘면
쓰다 써요 썼어요 씁니다 쓸 거예요 쓴/쓰는/쓸 쓰세요 쓰니까 쓰면
크다 커요 컸어요 큽니다 클 거예요 크세요 크니까 크면

[vocabulary] 혹시 and 아마 : maybe

Many Korean learner are confused by 아마 and 혹시.
아마‘ means ‘maybe, probably, likely, perhaps’, 혹시 means ‘I wonder, by any chance, might’.
아마‘ is usually used in statement sentences, and ‘혹시‘ is used in statement and question sentences.

When 혹시 is used in a question sentence, it means ‘I wonder’, which expresses ‘I am not sure you know my answer’ or ‘I am going to ask something, so please be prepare’.  So if you used this in a question, it feels a little more polite.

For example, 
혹시 선생님 전화 번호 알아요?      (I wonder) Do you know teacher’s phone number?
혹시 전화 좀 빌려 줄 수 있으세요?   (I wonder) Can you lend me your phone?
혹시 여기에 어떻게 가는지 아세요?   (I wonder)  Do you know how to get this place?
혹시 물 좀 줄 수 있어요?   (I wonder) Can you give me some water?

If 혹시 is used in a statement sentence, it means ‘if’.  In this case, it is used with -(으)면 or 거든.

For example, 
혹시 선생님 전화 번호를 알면 알려 주세요. If you know teacher’s phone number, please let me know.
혹시 돈이 있으면 좀 빌려 주세요. If you have some money, please lend me some.
혹시 일찍 오시거든 전화해 주세요.  If you come early, please call me.
혹시 다른 일이 있으면 다음에 만나도 돼요. If you have another thing to do, we can meet next time.

[Grammar] -(으)ㄹ지도 모르다 May, maybe

-(으)ㄹ지도 모르다

means may’, which expresses ‘guess’ or ‘not sure’.
모르다 should be present tense or future tense.
-(으)ㄹ 수도 있다 is similar to -(으)ㄹ지도 모르다
It is often used with ‘아마(maybe)’. 

verb/adjective(ends with a consonant) + 을지도 모르다 
verb/adjective(ends with a vowel) +ㄹ지도 모르다 
Noun + 일지도 모르다

For example, 
비가 오다(to rain) : 비가 올지도 몰라요. (=비가 올 수도 있어요)
집에 없다(be not at home) : 집에 없을지도 몰라요. (=집에 없을 수도 있어요)
좋아하다(to like)  : 안 좋아할지도 몰라요. (=안 좋아할 수도 있어요)
먹다(to eat)  : 안 먹을지도 몰라요. (=안 먹을수도 있어요)
비싸다 (be expensive) : 비쌀지도 몰라요. (=비쌀 수도 있어요)
범인(criminal) : 범인일지도 몰라요. (= 범인일 수도 있어요)

*irregular
듣다 (to listen) : 들을지도 몰라요.
춥다 (be cold) : 추울지도 몰라요.

*ㄹ final consonant
울다 (to cry) : 울지도 몰라요.

More sentences>>
아마 다른 사람이 들을지도 모르니까 조용히 이야기하세요.
Other people may listen, please talk quietly.

지금 백화점에 가면 사람이 많을지도 몰라요.
If you go to the department store now, there may be a lot of people.

아마 선생님이 학교에 안 계실지도 모르는데 여기서 기다릴까요?
The teacher may not be at the school, how about wait for the teacher here?

내일 비가 올지도 모르니까 우산을 가지고 가세요.
It may rain tomorrow, please bring an umbrella.

날씨가 추울지도 모르니까 두꺼운 옷을 꼭 챙기세요.
The weather may be cold, please bring a warm clothes.

Hangeul 1 – Single Vowels

Korean Characters

Hangeul 1- 8 Single Vowels 

There are 40 characters in Korean, which are 21 vowels and 19 consonants.  The vowels can be divided to the single vowels and the double vowels.  There are 8 single vowels and 13 double vowels.

We are going to learn the single vowels in this page.

* Single vowels

1) ㅏ  ‘a’ as in ‘father’, ‘spa’

2) ㅓ ‘awe’ as in ‘awesome’ and ‘au’ as in ‘August’

3) ㅗ ‘o’ as in ‘ghost’, ‘sofa’, however you shouldn’t move your mouth shape. 

4) ㅜ ‘oo’ as in ‘zoo’, ‘too’. You should make your lips as a round shape. 

5) ㅡ There is no pronunciation in English that is similar to this, however you can think of an extremely freezing day, you can make this sound 🙂

6) ㅣ’e’ as in ‘me’, ‘see’

7-8) ㅔ/ㅐ ‘에’ is similar to ‘e’ as in ‘set, bed’ and ‘애’ is similar to ‘a’ as in ‘dad’, ‘bat’. But many Koreans don’t recognize the difference.

Hangeul 2 – Double vowels

2)  double vowels

1)ㅑ ‘ya’ : single vowel ‘ㅣ’ and single vowel ‘ㅏ’ combined

2)ㅕ ‘yeo’ : single vowel ‘ㅣ’ and single vowel ‘ㅓ’ combined

3) ㅛ ‘yo’: single vowel ‘ㅣ’ and single vowel ‘ㅗ’ combined

4) ㅠ ‘ yu’ : single vowel ‘ㅣ’ and single vowel ‘ㅜ’ combined

5-6) ㅖ/ㅒ’ye’ : single vowel ‘ㅣ’ and single vowel ‘ㅔ/ㅐ’ combined

7) ㅘ ‘wa’ : single vowel ‘ㅗ’ and single vowel ‘ㅏ’ combined

8) ㅝ’wo’ : single vowel ‘ㅜ’ and single vowel ‘ㅓ’ combined

9-10) ㅙ / ㅞ ‘wae’, ‘we’ : single vowel ‘ㅗ’ and single vowel ‘ㅐ’ combined, single vowel ‘ㅜ’ and single vowel ‘ㅔ’ combined

11) ㅚ’oe’ :It was originally a single vowel, but many people recently read this as a double vowel like ‘ㅙ/ㅞ’

12) ㅟ ‘wi’ : single vowel ㅜ’ and single vowel ‘ㅣ’ combined

13) ㅢ’eui’ : single vowel ‘ㅡ’ and single vowel ‘ㅣ’ combined

Hangeul 4 – Consonants (Less air and relax)

Hangeul 4 – The First set of Korean Consonants

There are three consonant sets in Korean that depends on how to make a sound.

The first set has five sounds, which are very relaxing and small amount of air.  You should be careful with the amount of air because there are another set for aspirated sounds.  These are the first set of consonants.

5) ㄱ ‘g’: between ‘g’ and ‘k’ sound

6) ㄷ ‘d’: between ‘d’ and ‘t’ sound

7) ㅂ ‘b’: between ‘b’ and ‘p’ sound

8) ㅅ’s’ : very soft ‘s’ sound like smart, smile

9) ㅈ ‘j’ : between ‘j’ and ‘ch’ sound

Vocabulary flash cards for ‘ㄱ’ ‘ㄷ’ ‘ㅂ’ ‘ㅅ’ ‘ㅈ’ -> http://quizlet.com/28340157/hangul2-consonants-flash-cards/