[Grammar] 한국어 조사 Korean Particles/ makers part 2

9. -의
-의 means possessive and you read it as [에], not [의].  But you don’t see them very often because we can skip them very often in conversations.  For example,
1) 그 사람 이름을 기억할 수 없어요. I cannot remember that person’s name.
2) 컵 색깔이 참 예뻐요. The color of the cup is very pretty.
If it is used with 저, 나 or 너, we usually combine them together.  For example,
저의 => 제 my  
나의 => 내 my
너의 => 네 your (For distinguish between 내and 네, Korean people usually say 네 as 니)

10. -(으)로
-(으)로 has several meanings,
1) with, by, in which means using some tools.
으로 쓰세요.  Please write with a pen.
기차 가요.  Going by train.
영어 말하세요.  Please speak in English.
2) for, to, toward which means directions.
이쪽으로 오세요.  Please come this way.
부산으로 이사했어요.  Moved to Pusan.
If a noun ends with ‘ㄹ’ final consonant, you don’t put -(으) like 연필로, 지하철로.

11. -한테, -에게
-한테 means ‘for someone’ or ‘from someone’ .  -에게 is the formal form of -한테.  For example,
1) 친구한테 말했어요. I talked to my friend.
2) 동생한테 전화했어요.  I called my younger sister/brother.
3) 강아지한테 물을 주세요. Please give water to the puppy.

12. -한테서, -에게서
-한테서 means ‘from someone’.  -에게서 is the formal form of -한테서. For example,
1) 친구한테서 편지를 받았어요. I got a letter from my friend.
2) 동생한테서 전화가 왔어요.   I got a phone call from my younger sister/brother.

13. -부터
-부터 means ‘from sometime’ or ‘since sometime’.  For example,
1) 3월부터 한국어를 공부했어요.  I have been studying Korean since March.
2) 월요일부터 금요일까지 학교에 가요. I go to school from Monday to Friday.

14. -까지 
-까지 means ‘to, by, until for time and place’.  For example,
1) 집에서 학교까지 1시간 걸려요.  It takes an hour from my house to school.
2) 12시부터 1시까지 점심을 먹어요. I eat lunch from 12 to 1.
3) 5시까지 우리 집에 오세요. Please come to my house by 5.

15.-마다 
-마다 means ‘every’, it is the same meaning as ‘매’ that you usually see in 매년, 매달, 매주and 매일.
1) 해마다 = 매년 every year
2) 달마다 = 매달 every month
3) 주마다 = 매주 every week
4) 날마다 = 매일 every day

You can listen to the audio by clicking this link. 

To be continued…

[Grammar] -다가 to change actions

Verb1 -다가 Verb2

-다가 is a verb connector which connects two verbs.  It means the first action(verb1) has finished yet, but the action changes to the second action(verb2).  For example,

밥을 먹다가 나갔어요.  In the middle of eating, he went out. (the action of eating hasn’t finished)
잠을 자다가 깼어요. In the middle of sleeping, I woke up. (the action of sleeping hasn’t finished)
청소하다가 다쳤어요. In the middle of cleaning, I hurt myself. (the action of cleaning hasn’t finished)
발표를 하다가 잊어버렸어요. In the middle of presentation, I forgot. (the presentation hasn’t finished)
왜 말을 하다가 멈춰요? Why do you stop in the middle of speaking?
편지를 쓰다가 친구 생각이 났어요.  In the middle of writing a letter, I thought about my friend.
한국어를 공부하다가 너무 어려워서 포기했어요. In the middle of studying Korean, I gave up because it was too difficult.
시험을 보다가 잠이 들었어요.  In the middle of the test, I feel asleep. (Oh, no!!!!!!)
학교에 가다가 친구를 만났어요.  On the way to school, I met my friend.
집에 가다가 슈퍼에 들렀어요. On the way home, I stopped by a supermarket.

[vocabulary] 정치 관련 about politics

신문이나 뉴스에서 많이 볼 수 있는 단어들입니다.

정부 government 특검 special prosecutor
party 협의하다 to discuss
여당 the ruling party 연설 speech
야당 the opposition party 법안 bill
여야 the ruling party and the opposition party 안을 발의하다 to propose bill
국회 the National Assembly 법안을 상정하다 to lay a bill
국회의원 member of National Assembly 대표 representative
국회의사당 the National Assembly buiding 지도부 leadership
투표 vote 협상 negotiation
표결에 부치다 to vote on 전략 stretagy
선거 election 개혁 reformation
후보 candidate 집권 seize power
보수 conservatism 내각 Ministry
진보 progress 의석 seat
인사 person, personnel 행정부 administration
정세 situation 입법부 legislature
논의하다 to discuss 사법부 the judiciary
언급하다 to mention 대통령 president
촉구하다 to urge, demand 의회 assembly
무산되다 to be canceled 헌법 constitution
성명을 내다 to make an announcement 검찰 the prosecution

[vocabulary] 몸 관련 단어 about body

몸 관련

body 머리 head/hair 머리카락 hair
눈썹 eyebrow 이마 forehead eye
속눈썹 eyelash 쌍꺼풀 double eyelid 눈꺼풀 eyelid
눈동자 pupil 광대뼈 cheekbone cheek
보조개 dimple 얼굴 face ear
nose mouth 입술 lip
tooth 잇몸 gum 윗니 top teeth
아랫니 bottom teeth 앞니 front teeth 송곳니 canine
어금니 molar 사랑니 wisdom tooth tongue
chin saliva the back of the body
neck/throat 어깨 shoulder arm
팔꿈치 elbow hand 손목 wrist
손가락[손까락] fingers 손톱 nail 손바닥[손빠닥] palm
손등[손뜽] the back of the  hand 가슴 check/breast stomach/belly
배꼽 belly button 엉덩이 hip/butt 허리 waist
다리 legs 허벅지 thigh 무릎 knee
종아리 calf foot 발목 ankle
발꿈치 heel 발바닥[발빠닥] the bottom of the foot 발등[발뜽] the back of the foot
발톱 toe nail 발가락[발까락] toe
상체 upper body 하체 lower body