-의 means possessive and you read it as [에], not [의]. But you don’t see them very often because we can skip them very often in conversations. For example,
1) 그 사람의 이름을 기억할 수 없어요. I cannot remember that person’s name.
2) 컵의 색깔이 참 예뻐요. The color of the cup is very pretty.
If it is used with 저, 나 or 너, we usually combine them together. For example,
저의 => 제 my
나의 => 내 my
너의 => 네 your (For distinguish between 내and 네, Korean people usually say 네 as 니)
-(으)로 has several meanings,
1) with, by, in which means using some tools.
펜으로 쓰세요. Please write with a pen.
기차로 가요. Going by train.
영어로 말하세요. Please speak in English.
2) for, to, toward which means directions.
이쪽으로 오세요. Please come this way.
부산으로 이사했어요. Moved to Pusan.
If a noun ends with ‘ㄹ’ final consonant, you don’t put -(으) like 연필로, 지하철로.
11. -한테, -에게
-한테 means ‘for someone’ or ‘from someone’ . -에게 is the formal form of -한테. For example,
1) 친구한테 말했어요. I talked to my friend.
2) 동생한테 전화했어요. I called my younger sister/brother.
3) 강아지한테 물을 주세요. Please give water to the puppy.
12. -한테서, -에게서
-한테서 means ‘from someone’. -에게서 is the formal form of -한테서. For example,
1) 친구한테서 편지를 받았어요. I got a letter from my friend.
2) 동생한테서 전화가 왔어요. I got a phone call from my younger sister/brother.
-부터 means ‘from sometime’ or ‘since sometime’. For example,
1) 3월부터 한국어를 공부했어요. I have been studying Korean since March.
2) 월요일부터 금요일까지 학교에 가요. I go to school from Monday to Friday.
-까지 means ‘to, by, until for time and place’. For example,
1) 집에서 학교까지 1시간 걸려요. It takes an hour from my house to school.
2) 12시부터 1시까지 점심을 먹어요. I eat lunch from 12 to 1.
3) 5시까지 우리 집에 오세요. Please come to my house by 5.
-마다 means ‘every’, it is the same meaning as ‘매’ that you usually see in 매년, 매달, 매주and 매일.
1) 해마다 = 매년 every year
2) 달마다 = 매달 every month
3) 주마다 = 매주 every week
4) 날마다 = 매일 every day
To be continued…