[Grammar] 반말 Casual form, informal form

We already know there are two types of verb endings in Korean depending on a listener. When you talk to elder people or boss, you should use ‘polite endings(존댓말)’.  On the other hand, when you talk to your friends or younger people who are very close to you, you can use ‘casual endings(반말)’.

In this post, we are going to learn ‘반말 the cause endings’.  I divided 반말 as two types of verb endings for speaking situations which are ‘formal endings(격식체)’ and ‘informal endings(비격식체)’.  We use ‘formal endings’ when we write something, make an announcement, make a speech or on news/newspaper.  And we use ‘informal endings’ for casual situations such as between friends or family even some company coworkers if they are close.

tense 현재 과거 미래
sentence type 평서문: Statement 의문문: Question 청유문: Suggestion 명령문: Request 감탄문: Exclamation 평서문/의문문/감탄문 평서문/의문문/감탄문
Formal

격식체

verb ending 동사+ (ㄴ/는)다
형용사+다
동사+냐/니?
형용사+냐/니
동사+-자 동사+(-아/어/여)­라 동사+는구나!
형용사+구나!
동/형-(았/었/였)다
동/형-(았/었/였)냐?/니?
동/형-(았/었/였)구나!
-겠다/-겠냐?/-겠니?/-겠구나!
verb 간다. 가냐?/니? 가자. 가라. 가는구나! 갔다/갔냐?/갔구나! 가겠다/가겠냐/가겠구나!
읽는다. 읽냐?/ 니? 읽자 읽어라. 읽는구나! 읽었다/읽었냐?/읽었구나! 읽겠다/읽겠냐/읽겠구나!
adjective 예쁘다. 예쁘냐?/니? 예쁘구나! 예뻤다/예뻤냐?/예뻤구나! 예쁘겠다/예쁘냐?/예쁘구나!
작다. 작냐?/니? 작구나! 작았다/작았냐?/작았구나! 작겠다/작겠냐?/작겠구나!
noun 명사+(이)다 명사+(이)냐/니? 명사+(이)구나! 명사+(였/이었)다/구나! 명사+(이)겠다/냐?/구나!
의사다. 의사냐?/니? 의사구나! 의사였다./였냐?/였구나! 의사겠다./의사겠냐?/의사구나!
형이다. 형이냐?/니? 선생님이구나! 형이었다./이었냐?/이었구나! 형이겠다./형이겠냐?/형이구나!
Informal

Friendly

비격식체

verb ending -아/어/여 -아/어/여? 아/어/여. 아/어/여. 동사/형용사+네! 동/형+았/었/였어.?

동/형+았/었/였네!

동/형+겠어.?

동/형+겠네!

verb 가. 가? / 가니? 가. 가. 가네! 갔어./갔어?/갔네! 가겠어./가겠어?/가겠네!
읽어. 읽어? / 읽니? 읽어. 읽어. 읽네! 읽었어/읽었어?/읽었네! 읽겠어./읽겠어?/읽겠네!
adjective 예뻐. 예뻐? / 예쁘니? 예쁘네! 예뻤어./예뻤어?/작았네! 예쁘겠어./예쁘겠어?/예쁘겠네!
작아. 작아? /작니? 작네! 작았어./작았어?/작았네! 작겠어/작겠어?/작겠네!
noun 명사(이야,아니야)
의사야 의사야?/의사니? 의사네! 의사였어./의사였어?/의사였네! 의사겠어./의사겠어?/의사겠네!
선생님이야 선생님이야?/
선생님이니?
선생님이네! 선생님이었어./선생님이었어?/선생님이었네! 선생님이겠어./선생님이겠어?/선생님이겠네!

When you speak in 반말 the casual form to someone, you are suppose to call someone’s name in 반말.  Instead of ㅇㅇㅇ 씨, you can add -아 or -야 after their names.  For example,

민성 씨 => 민성아 (-아 is for the name ending with a consonant)
주아 씨 => 주아야 (-아 is for the name ending with a vowel)

Remember!  

You should discuss with someone to use 반말 before you start using even if you are older than someone.  Usually, younger people suggest you to use 반말 first because they are young.
“저보다 언니/오빠네요. 그냥 반말하세요. “like that.

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