Verb/adjective conjugation

In this post, I am talking about how to conjugate verbs and adjectives from basic verb forms.

Every Korean verb/adjective ends with ‘— 다’, for example, 가다, 오다, 먹다, 살다, 마시다 etc. When you conjugate verbs/adjectives with endings, first you delete 다 and then add endings like the following below.

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And then you have to look at an ending that you want to add. There are three types of endings. The first type is  -아/어/여 ending. For -아/어/여 ending, you have to look at the previous letter’s vowel.

If the vowel is ㅏor ㅗ, then you have to add -아. For example, -아요(present), -았어요(past), -아서(because) etc.

If the vowel is other than ㅏ or ㅗ, you have to add -어. For example, -어요(present), -었어요(past), -어서(because) etc.

If the previous letter ends with ‘하’, you have to add -여. But it changes the form into ‘해’ in conversations. For example, -여요=>해요(present), -였어요=> 했어요(past), -여서=> 해서(because).

 

The second type is that endings start with -(으) or (스), for example, (으)ㄹ 거예요, (으)ㄹ 수 있어요, -(스)ㅂ니다 etc. In this case, you have to look at whether the previous letter ends with a vowel or a consonant.

If the letter ends with a vowel, you do not use 으 or 스. For example, 가+ㅂ니다 => 갑니다, 자+ㄹ 거예요 => 잘 거예요.

If the letter ends with a consonant, you have to use 으  or 스.  For example, 먹+습니다 => 먹습니다, 읽+습니다 => 읽습니다.

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Finally, the third type is that endings start with a consonant. For example, -고, -지, -게 etc. For these endings, you can just simply attach them to a verb/adjective.
가+고 싶어요 => 가고 싶어요,  먹+지 않아요 => 먹지 않아요.

 

Please reply to this post if you have any questions about conjugation. Thank you!

 

 

-은/는커녕 or -기는커녕 don’t even say –

“Noun은/는커녕 B(도) + negative situation”
“Verb기는커녕 + negative situation”

means ‘Don’t even mention A because it is far from —‘.

 

For example,

 

A: 만 원만 빌려 주세요.  Please lend me 10,000 Won.
B: 만 원은커녕 천 원 없어요. I don’t have 1,000 Won, let alone 10,000 Won.

A: 파티에서 맛있는 거 많이 드셨어요? Did you enjoy delicious food at the party?
B: 사람이 너무 많아서 음식은커녕 못 마셨어요. There are too many people, so I could not even drink water, let alone food.

A: 이번에 월급이 많이 올랐어요? Have your salary raised a lot this time?
B: 오르기는커녕 잘리지나 않으면 다행이에요. Far from raising, I will be lucky if they do not fire me.

A: 이번 파티에 사람이 한 백 명 넘게 오겠죠? Will there be more than 100 people this party?
B: 백 명은커녕 50명 안 올걸요. I don’t think there will be even 50 people, let alone 100.

A: 여행 재미있게 했어요?  Did you have fun on your trip?
B: 재미는커녕 여권을 도둑 맞아서 고생만 했어요. Far from having fun, I had difficult time because I had my passport stolen.

 

 

[Expression]어떻게 해요? vs 어떡해요?

어떻게(adverb) means ‘how’ and ‘해요(verb)‘ means ‘do’, so 어떻게 해요 means ‘what should I(you) do?”. And 어떡해요(adjective) is a short form for 어떻게 해요. Therefore, both mean “what should I do?”. They are used for when some BAD thing happened.

In conversations, it can be translated “Oh, no”, “Oh, my god!” or “Too bad”. I heard that a lot of people say ‘미안해요’ when they hear bad news because in English, they say “I am sorry to hear that.” when they hear a bad thing.

But “미안해요.” means “sorry/apologize”, not ‘feel sorry’.  You can say “아이고, 어떡해요.” or “어머, 정말 안 됐네요.(It is too bad)”.

 

Example,

A: 200만원을 잃어버렸어요. I lost 2,000,000 Won.
B: 아이고, 어떡해요. 그거 등록금이잖아요. Oh, my god! That was your tuition!

B: 왜 울고 있어요? 무슨 일 있어요? Why are you crying? What happened?
A: 어제 우리 집 강아지가 갑자기 죽었어요. My dog suddenly died yesterday.
B: 어머, 어떡해요… 무슨 병이 있었어요?  Oh, no… Was he sick before?

A: 지난 주에 정민 씨가 남자 친구하고 헤어졌어요. Jungmin broke up with her boyfriend last week.
B: 어머, 정말 안 됐네요. 정민 씨가 남자 친구를 많이 좋아했잖아요. That’s too bad, Jungmin really like him, right?