Grammar list for advanced

  1. Even/No matter
    1. -는다고 해도(-는 대도), -는다고 하더라도, -는다고 하지만, -는다고는 하나 even though, even if, no matter
    2. -는다손 치더라도 even though, even if, no matter
    3. -아/어/해 봤자, -는댔자, -아/어/해 봐야 : it is useless anyway to try the act mentioned in the preceding statement.
    4. -(으)ㄴ들 : when a result is different from what was anticipated, even if that situation was a presumable outcome.
    5. -(으)ㄹ지언정 : rather than, sooner than, even if[though
    6. -(으)ㄹ망정 even, however, although
    7. -기로서니 : even though, although, admitting[granting, supposing] that
    8. -라고 해서 even if + part negation
  2. Opposition – but, however, on the other hand
    1. -건마는(건만) :  the actual result is different from the result that was anticipated from the preceding statement.
    2. -(으)랴마는, -(기야 하)겠냐마는 : although the speaker accepts the preceding statement, it does not affect the following statement.
    3. -(으)련만는 : when the speaker anticipates and assumes a certain situation of which some conditions are met, but the following content is not so.
    4. -는다는 것이 : a result not intended during the preceding act appears in the following statement.
    5. -는 데 반해 (견주어 보건대, 그에 비해):  at the beginning of a sentence when the next thing that is mentioned is compared with something in the previous sentence
    6. -다가도 : but then, but anyway, nevertheless
    7. -는가 하면(=나 하면) : to express contrast or
    8. -거늘 : (=지만) although, while / now that, since, as, on[upon]
    1. -기는 하되, -되 : though, although, even though, but/if, when/ and that
    2. -(으)면서도 : yet, though
    3. -고도 :  add an opposite or another characteristic in the following statement.
  3. Prediction
    1. -(으)려니, -겠거니 : guess, expect
    2. -(으)려니와, -거니와 : not only— but also—, moreover, in addition
    3. -는 게 뻔하다 : It is definitely
    4. -(으)ㄹ 성싶다 : I guess, be likely to, it seems like
    5. -(으)려나 모르겠다 : I don’t know if (to ask casually about the expectation or assumption of an event)
    6. -(으)ㅁ직하다 :  to guess that the content of the preceding statement is highly likely.
    7. -더라니 : to talk about a certain result happening as one expected, while giving reasons for it.
    8. -(으)리라 : I will, I would / may, mush, should
  4. Compare and degree
    1. -느니 : rather
    2. -(으)ㄹ 바에는/-(으)ㄹ 바에야 : rather
    3. B만 하겠어요? : Can’t be better than B. (rhetorical question)
    4. -는 것이라고는 -뿐이다/밖에 없다/고작이다 : only
    5. -에 불과하다 : only, just
    6. -(으)ㄹ 따름이다 : only, just
    7. -기 나름이다(= 기에 달려있다) : It depends on
    8. 더할 나위가 없다 : can’t be better, be superb
    9. noun+깨나 : to indicate it is greater than a certain degree(usually use to criticize)
    10. -기 짝이 없다 : to stress that something is incomparably great or severe.
    11. -기 일쑤이다 : to state that the incident mentioned in the preceding statement happens frequently.
    12. -기 그지없다/-기 이를 데 없다 : to be boundless / be indescribable
    13. -아/어 치우다 : to indicate that the subject does an action in the preceding statement easily and fast.
    14. -아/어 빠지다 : to indicate that the speaker is displeased because the quality or state described by the preceding words is very deteriorating or dismal
    15. -아/어도 과언이 아니다 : it is not an exaggeration to say that (=I’m not exaggerating when I say that.)
    16. 이만저만 -는 게 아니다 : it is not a little,
    17. -다(가) 못해(서) :  to indicate that the act mentioned in the preceding statement cannot be continued.
    18. -(으)ㄹ 지경이다 : usually with 죽다, 미치다 together, it means ‘be on the point[verge, brink] of’
    19. -는 데 급급하다 : be busy in, be engrossed in
    20. 뭐니 뭐니 해도 : no matter what they say, when all is said and done
    21. A(으)ㄹ 대로 A다 : to indicate that something is in a severe state.
    22. -(으)리 만치(만큼) : to indicate that something is of the same quantity or level as the preceding statement.
    23. -는 반면에 : on the other hand
    24. -기(가) 무섭게 : As soon as
    25. -이/가 그만이다 : be no more than that; be enough; That’s it
    26. -아/어/여 들다 : used when actively doing an action in the preceding statement
  5. Negative or doubt
    1. adverbs with negation
    2. 과연 -(으)ㄹ까? : used when speaker has a doubt
    3. -(으)ㄹ리 만무하다 : cannot be, be hardly possible
    4. -(으)ㄹ 턱이 없다/-(으)ㄹ리가 없다 : to indicate that the speaker is certain that the content of the preceding statement has an explanation or could possibly be true.
    5. -은/는 고사하고 : setting aside, apart from, let alone, to say nothing(of)
    6. -는 체하다/-는 척하다 : to pretend
    7. -기는 틀렸다 : be hopeless
    8. -만은 아니다 : (part negation) it is not always
    9. -(으)ㄹ래도/-(으)ㄹ래야 -(으)ㄹ 수가 없다 : can’t (emphasize ‘can’t do verb’)
    10. (으)ㄹ 수가 있어야지? (rhetorical question) = (으)ㄹ 수 없다
  6. Reason and result
    1. –(으)니/-(느)니만큼, -(으)ㄴ/는 만큼 : ‘because – so- ‘used when admitting to the truth of the preceding statement and saying that it is the cause or reason for the following statement.
    2. –(으)ㄴ 나머지 : used to indicate that something is the result of a certain act or state mentioned in the preceding statement.
    3. –아/어/여서 그런지, -아/어/여서인지 : used to guess that the preceding statement is the cause or reason for the following statement.
    4. –(으)로 말미암아 : because of, due to, owing to
    1. –(으)ㄴ/는지라 : used to guess that the preceding statement is the cause or reason for the following statement.
    2. –(으)므로 : since; as; so; so…that; because; due to; owing to; for.
    3. –는 통에, -통에 :  to indicate the situation or cause of the bad result mentioned in the following statement.
    4. –(으)ㄹ세라/-지나 않을까 : (there is a fear) lest, there is a danger of, it will, it might, in a way so as to avoid
    5. -(으)ㄹ라 : used when worrying that something will happen as said in the preceding statement.
    6. –(으)ㄹ진대 :  if, in case, provided that
    7. –(으)ㄴ즉 : that is, to indicate that the action of the preceding clause is the basis or reason for the following clause
    8. –(으)ㄹ지니 : it means “should be so”
    9. -(으)로 인해서 : because
    10. -는 이유로 : for the reason
  7. Condition and hypothesis
    1. –다가는 : to warn that an action should stop, otherwise there will be a bad result.
    2. –(으)면야 : if that condition met
    3. -거들랑(=거든) : used to convey the meaning, “if something is true or turns out to be true.”
    4. –(으)ㄴ/는 날에는 : if that happens, then- (something that speaker doesn’t want to happen)
    5. -기라도 하면 : if it happens
    6. –자면 : used to assume a certain intention or thought.
    7. -았/었/였던들 :  granted that, even if (it had been known to happen that), if it had happened that
    8. –(으)ㄹ라치면 : whenever, when, if, every time
    9. –ㄴ/는다 하면 하나같이 : if it happens, then it always has the same result
    10. –(으)면 으레 : if it happens, then it usually has the same result
    11. –(으)ㄴ/는 한 : to indicate that the preceding statement becomes the premise or condition for the act or state in the following statement.
    12. –(으)ㄴ/는 이상 :  to indicate that one must do something or accept a certain situation, because the preceding statement has been already decided.
    13. -아/어/여서는 : usually with negation, it means ‘if’
    14. –고서야 : to stress that the act or situation mentioned in the preceding statement finally leads to the situation mentioned in the following statement./ to stress that when the preceding statement becomes the condition, the situation mentioned in the following statement can occur only with great difficulty though its occurrence may be impossible.
    15. -아/어/여서야 : to indicate that the speaker thinks the preceding statement is wrong.
    16. –아/어/여야지 : to emphasize that someone or something is supposed to be in a certain situation or state, but it is not so.
    17. –(으)면 몰라도/모를까 : it’s not as if
    18. –(으)면 그만이지/-으면 됐지 : once do it, that’s it/ that’s enough
  8. Addition or parallel
    1. –(으)ㄹ뿐더러 : not only but also
    2. (–도 )–거니와/-(으)려니와 : as well as, not only…but also
    3. –(으)랴 –(으)랴 : to indicate the intention to do all these things
    4. –자니 –자니 : to indicate a frustration or hesitation of speaker’s plan
    5. –을/를 비롯해서 : including –
    6. –따위 : etc. (et cetera)
    7. -는 물론이고 : as well as
    8. -(으)ㄹ 바탕으로 : be based on
  9. Speaker’s will
    1. –(으)ㄹ 양으로/-(으)ㄹ 셈으로/-노라고 : with the intention[object, aim, idea] of;
    2. –ㄴ/는답시고, -(이)랍시고 : used when the speaker is displeased about the subject claiming that the preceding statement is the reason for the following action.
    3. –(으)면서라도/-고서라도 : even by doing so
    4. -는 한이 있더라도 : even if ( to indicate the speaker’s commitment to accomplish the following statement, although the speaker must overcome the extreme situation mentioned in the preceding statement.)
    5. –(으)려고 들다 : to indicate that one is very eager to do a certain act mentioned in the preceding statement.
    6. –을/를 무릅쓰고 : in defiance of
  10. Others
    1.  –노라면 (=다가 보면) : (old fashioned) while you are doing an action, you will find out-
    2. -(으)ㄹ락 말락 하다 / -(으)ㄹ 듯 말 듯하다 : be on the point[brink, verge] of / come close[near]
    1. -는 둥 마는 둥 하다 :  to indicate that one does not do a certain act properly.
    2. –거나 말거나 : whether A or not,
    3. –기에 앞서 : before proceeding an action
    4. -기에 망정이지 : (after hearing a bad situation) it is lucky
    5. -는 법이다 : to indicate that the act or state mentioned in the preceding statement has been decided already or is reasonable
    6. -(으)ㄹ 법도 하다 : to judge that the situation mentioned in the preceding statement is likely to happen.
    7. -는 법이 없다 : never
    1. –(으)ㄴ/는다(았다) 뿐이지 : to indicate preceding content is acceptable, but other things are not.
    2. –(으)려던 차에/-던 차에 : one was about to do something, the following action happens.
    3. –(으)ㄴ/는 마당에 : it has already happened (to indicate that one is in a situation or position where something mentioned in the preceding statement has already occurred.)
    4. –아/어/여도 모자랄 판(판국)에 : it is not enough to an action, the following action is even worse.
    5. –라고 : when implying the purpose or intention of a certain action, or the reason or cause of a certain situation.
    6. –다시피 : as, like, sort of, similar to, in the same way (that)
    7. –ㄴ바 : to present in a prefatory manner a certain situation related to the following statement as a background or reason.
    8. verb+는 대로
    9. noun+적이다/ noun+적으로
    10. -고 보다 / -다가 보다
    11. -고 나다/ – 고 나면
    12. Passive sentence
    13. Causative sentence
    14. -다면서(요)?
    15. -고말고(요)/-다마다 : agree what you just said, Indeed
    16. -기 마련이다 : to indicate that it is natural for something to occur or become a certain state.
    17. -기 십상이다 :  to state that the current situation can easily become the situation mentioned in the preceding statement or there is a high possibility.
    18. -다니 : (unexpected )how[why] should, I am sorry (that), I regret, It is a pity (that)
    19. -는 가운데 : to indicate that the background or situation of a certain act or incident is continued.
    1. -는 감이 있다/들다 : have a feeling of
    2. -는 순간(찰나)에 : at the very moment