[Grammar] -(으)ㄴ/는 것 a noun clause

-(으)ㄴ/는 + is attached to an adjective/a verb, make it a noun clause, it can be translated as ‘verb-ing’ or ‘the thing/event that’ in English.

adjective + (으)ㄴ 것
verb + 는 것

요리하는 것이(것이=게=거) 어려워요.  Cooking is difficult.
고양이를 키우는 것이 힘들지 않아요.  Having a cat is not that hard.
아이들하고 노는 것이 재미있어요. Playing with kids is fun. (놀다 + 는 것 : ㄹ drop)
음식 만드는 것은(=것은=건=거) 재미없어요. Making food is not fun. (만들다 +는 것 : ㄹ drop)
아침에 꽃에 물을 주는 것이 좋아요. Watering flowers in the morning is good.
약을 먹는 것이 싫어요. I don’t like taking medicine.
기타 치는 것을(것을=걸=거) 좋아해요. I like playing guitar.
공원에 가는 것을 안 좋아해요. I do not like going to the park.
아이들이 수영하는 것을 보고 있어요. I am watching kids swimming.
동생이 숙제하는 것을 도와 줄 거예요.  I will help my sister to do homework.
친구가 웃는 것을 보고 싶어요. I want to see my friend smiling.
매운 거 안 좋아해요. I don’t like spicy stuff.
맛있는 거 줄까요? Would you like to have something that is delicious?
오늘은 바쁜데 내일 만나는 거 어때요? How about meeting tomorrow, I am pretty busy today.
혹시 안 먹는 거 있어요? By any chance, do you have something that you don’t like to eat?
저는 노래 듣는 거 좋아해요. I like listening to music.

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Past tense
verb + (으)ㄴ 것

어제 동생한테 준 것이 뭐예요? What is the thing that you gave your younger sibling yesterday?
친구한테 말한 것이 후회돼요. I regret the thing that I told my friend.
지난 주에 공부한 것을 잊어버렸어요. I forgot the thing that I studied last week.
아까 종이에 쓴 것이 이름이에요? The thing that you wrote on the paper a moment ago, is it a name?

Future tense
verb+(으)ㄹ 것

내일 공부할 것이 뭐예요? What is the thing that we will study tomorrow?
집에 먹을 것이 하나도 없네요. There is nothing to eat.

것이 can be shortened as , and 것을 can be shortened as , and 것은 can be shorten as . Furthermore, 이 and 을 are often dropped in real conversations, so you will hear just 거.

You can listen to the audio file by clicking here. 

You can study more about the difference between 는 거, -기, -(으)ㅁ by clicking here. 

If you want to learn more about modifiers, please click here.

#은것 #는것 #을것 #ㄴ것 #(으)ㄴ것 #은거 #는거 #을거 #ㄴ거 #(으)ㄴ거 #거 #게 #은게 #는게 #는걸 #은걸 #는 거 meaning #걸 meaning #건 meaning #Koreanㄴ #modifier #modifying #는 grammar #은 grammar #ㄴ grammar

[Grammar] -기, -는 것, -음 : Nominalization

When you make a noun or noun clause from a verb, there are three ways to make, which are -기, -는 것, -음.

-기 is used for unfinished action or idioms; it often used with emotion adjectives or some action verbs.  These are the adjectives and verbs that are often used with -기. 
좋다(good) 이곳은 보석을 보관하기에 좋습니다.  This place is good for storage jewelry.
싫다(hate) 혼자 있기 싫어요. I don’t like being alone.
쉽다(easy) 집 찾기가 쉬웠어요. It was easy to find the house
어렵다(difficult) 이 일은 혼자 하기 어려운 일이에요. This work is difficult to do alone.
힘들다(difficult) 참기가 정말 힘들어요. It is very hard to bear.
즐기다(enjoy) 운동을 즐기는 사람들 People who enjoy working out.
좋아하다(like) 식물 기르기를 좋아해요. I like growing plants.

싫어하다(hate) 청소하기를 싫어합니다. I don’t like cleaning.
두려워하다(scare) 학교 가기를 두려워합니다. He was afraid of going to school.
바라다(hope) 모두 무사하기를 바랍니다. I hope everyone is fine.
희망하다(hope) 다시 뵙기를 희망합니다. I wish we can see each other again.
기원하다(hope) 사업이 잘 되시기를 기원합니다. I wish your company’s prosperity.

시작하다(start) 눈이 아프기 시작했습니다. My eyes started aching.

As you can see, it is often used with these adjectives and verbs which are mostly related to ‘Emotion’ or ‘Unfinished’.  It is also used for idioms, for example,

– 식은 죽 먹기.  Piece of cake! (Eat cold porridge.)
– 하늘의 별 따기.  Impossible! (Catch a star in the sky.)

-(으)ㅁ is used for finished action or an action that has already happened, so you can add the past tense in front of -음.   These are the adjectives and verbs that are often used with -음.

분명하다(clear) 뭔가를 숨기고 있음이 분명하다. He is definitely hiding something.
틀림없다(must be true) 그 사람도 거짓말을 하고 있음이 틀림없다. She/he must also be lying.
드러나다(be exposed) 민수의 이야기가 거짓임이 드러났다. Minsu’s story is revealed in a lie.
알려지다(come out) 그 사람이 몰래 다른 사람들을 돕고 있음이 알려졌다. It became known that the person was secretly helping others.
밝혀지다(be found) 그 사람이 돈을 몰래 쓰고 있었음이 밝혀졌다. It turned out that the person was secretly using the money.

깨닫다(realize) 이미 늦었음을 깨달았다. I realized it is too late.
알다(know) 범죄를 저질렀음을 알고 있었다. I knew he commit a crime.
알리다(tell) 비가 가을이 왔음을 알려주고 있다. The rain tells us the Fall already has come.
주장하다(claim) 환경보호의 중요함을 주장했다. He claimed the importance of environmental protection.

As you can see, it is often used with adjectives or verbs that mostly mean ‘judgement, knowledge, fact, report or finished action’.  We also use 음 to shorten the final sentence of documents, for example,

– 사실과 다르지 않음을 증명합니다. I certify that is authentic.
– 사람을 찾음. Missing! (Looking for a person)

-는 것(-는 거) is more flexible than -기 or -음.  You can use -는 것 instead of -기 or -음 except for fixed grammar like -기에 좋다, -기를 바라다/희망하다/기원하다, -기 시작하다, -기로 (약속)하다, -기만 하다, -기도 하다 etc.

– 집에 혼자 는 것이 싫어요. = 집에 혼자 있기 싫어요.
– 집 찾는 것이 쉬웠어요. = 집 찾기가 쉬웠어요.
– 청소하는 것을 싫어해요. = 청소하기를 싫어해요.
– 뭔가 숨기고 있는 것이 분명해요. = 뭔가 숨기고 있음이 분명해요.
– 범죄를 저지른 것을 알고 있었다. = 범죄를 저질렀음을 알고 있었다.